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The Comprehensive Oxygen Sensor Guide


In any car's exhaust system, an oxygen sensor is essential. Its major job is to figure out what's in your car's exhaust or emissions and send that information to the onboard computer for better engine performance. Read along to know more about your car oxygen sensor and its associated functions.

What Is A Car Oxygen Sensor?

The oxygen sensor is at the tip of the exhaust pipe and is used to detect the oxygen levels in the exhaust as it gets released from the engine. The O2 sensor tells the computer if the fuel mixture is burning rich (too much oxygen) or lean (too little oxygen). This information helps the ECU to adjust the fuel entering from the fuel delivery system to the engine for proper combustion and correct fuel-to-air ratios. If not corrected, it may lead to increased fuel consumption and increased emissions from the exhaust. It may also damage the catalytic converter and the engine components as well.

What Are The Important Features Of Car Oxygen Sensor?

The important features of car oxygen sensor are as follows:

The oxygen sensor has two prime objectives. The first is to measure the oxygen levels in the exhaust to aid in the proper fuel-to-air ratio for the combustion process to take place. The second is to help in the reduction of harmful exhaust emissions by controlling the process in the first step.

How Does My Car Oxygen Sensor Work?

Have a look at how a car oxygen sensor works:

Like any combustion process, when the mixture of fuel and oxygen gets burnt in the engine chambers, gases get released. These gases are made up of many elements like oxygen, carbon, and many more. The gases find their way out of the exhaust pipe. As these gases pass through the exhaust system, it finds a component called an oxygen sensor on its way out in the exhaust manifold. This sensor calculates the amount of oxygen left unused in the combustion process and expelled out with other gases.

This information is then sent to the Engine Control Unit for further analysis. The ECU is responsible for the proper functioning of the engine and the associated components, which may also include many other sensors. The ECU is like the brain of the engine collecting all the data and making the right decisions.

After the ECU has analyzed the oxygen levels it will know if the combustion process is taking place properly or not. Thus, it will know if the engine is running lean (more air, less fuel) or rich (more fuel, less air). It will then instruct the fuel delivery system to act accordingly. Thus, the fuel entry levels will be adjusted for proper combustion to take place. This will also reduce harmful gas emissions from the exhaust system.

How Do I Choose The Right Oxygen Sensor?

What Are The Common Car Oxygen Sensor Problems?

The common car oxygen sensor problems are as follows:

  • The appearance of the Malfunction Indicator Light
  • Diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) might start appearing
  • Increasing fuel consumption
  • Bad engine performance
  • Black smoke might start coming from the exhaust
  • Failure in the emission tests

Which Tools Do I Need To Repair My Car Oxygen Sensor?

To change the oxygen sensor you may need the following tools:

Which Top Brands Oxygen Sensor Parts Should I Choose?

Some leading car parts brands are more than just products or services as they give rise to memories and emotions related to the quality. So have a look at some top brands for Oxygen Sensor.

  • Denso Oxygen Sensor
  • Bosch Oxygen Sensor
  • Delphi Oxygen Sensor
  • NGK Canada Oxygen Sensor
  • Richporter Technology Oxygen Sensor

To know more about top brand car Oxygen Sensor, visit our “Which Top Brand’s Oxygen Sensor Should I Choose?” section.

Which Parts Are Related To My Car Oxygen Sensor?

Are you familiar with basic car Oxygen Sensor related parts? If no, then what are you waiting for? Have a look at some important components of the car Oxygen Sensor.

What Are The Steps Of Changing My Car Oxygen Sensor?

It is important to understand the exact steps while replacing an oxygen sensor, as it can cause damage to various components in the exhaust system.

When replacing the O2 sensor, always be careful not to damage the mounting threads on the exhaust manifold, pipe, and catalytic converter. Since the O2 sensor rarely malfunctions, its removal can be tricky. If the mounting threads get damaged, the repair cost will increase significantly. Thus, inspect, learn and then go for it.

Step 1- Preparing to Remove the O2 Sensor

If the sensor is mounted on a flange, follow these steps:

  • Unplug the electrical connector.
  • Unscrew the mounting bolts.
  • Remove the old sensor.
  • Install a new unit along with a new gasket.

If the sensor is of any other type, follow these steps:

  • Few hours before trying to remove the O2 sensor apply a penetrating oil spray onto the sensor base where it joins the exhaust manifold.
  • After spraying, start the engine and let it idle for about 10 minutes. This helps the exhaust system to warm up for easy removal of the sensor.
  • Next, remove the black coloured negative battery cable and wrap it with a rag to avoid any accidental touch to the battery post.
  • If the sensor is close to the catalytic converter, you will need to lift the vehicle from the front. Use a floor jack to raise the vehicle from the front and keep it in that position using some jack stands. Next, block the rear wheels with wooden blocks and apply parking brakes. Always use safety glasses to avoid dust or grease from entering the eye.

Step 2 - Removing the Oxygen Sensor

  • Unplug the sensor connector and avoid breaking the locking tabs.
  • Next, turn the sensor counterclockwise using an open-end wrench or a sensor socket.
  • If the sensor is frozen or stuck, cut the wiring harness and use a six-point deep well socket or a breaker bar instead.
  • Apply some more penetrating oil to the sensor base.
  • Again, turn the sensor a few degrees just until it doesn’t move anymore. Apply some more oil and tighten the sensor again. Repeat this step till the sensor gets removed easily. Don’t force it.
  • After removing the sensor, apply the oil to the mounting threads and clean them with a nylon brush.
  • Check for any damages to the mounting threads and use a thread chaser to repair them. If the thread is crushed or stripped, use a tap to repair them.
  • After the repairs, clean the thread properly using penetrating oil and a clean rag.

Step 3 - Installing the Oxygen Sensor

  • Always check for the sensor specification before buying the new one. It should always match with the old O2 sensor. It is advisable to use an OEM unit rather than a universal one to avoid the hassle.
  • Be careful not to contaminate the tip of the sensor with oil or grease as it may not function properly.
  • To prevent cross-threading, always hand-start the sensor.
  • Using the sensor socket and torque wrench, tighten the sensor under the service manual.
  • Plug the sensor electrical connector and route the wiring away from hot surfaces.
  • Lower the vehicle, reconnect the negative charge cable to the battery, and start the vehicle. Your new O2 sensor should now function properly.

If you are still confused about which type of car Oxygen Sensor you should buy, then you can visit our The Ultimate Oxygen Sensor Buying Guide. You should always look for the warning signs of a bad Oxygen Sensor and replace them at the earliest you can. With us, you can find Oxygen Sensors at the most economical costs.

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FAQ

When your car idles, it may run erratically or sound rough if it has a defective oxygen sensor. A defective oxygen sensor can affect your engine’s timing, combustion intervals, and other vital aspects. You can notice stalling or poor acceleration as well.

Various pollutants that reach the exhaust can cause O2 sensor problems. Internal engine coolant leaks (because of a leaking head gasket or a crack in the cylinder wall or combustion chamber) and phosphorus from excessive oil usage are examples of these (due to worn rings or valve guides).

The life expectancy of your oxygen sensor should be between 50,000 and 60,000 kilometers. The sensor(s) may survive much longer, up to the life of the vehicle, if your engine is properly maintained.

An automobile with a malfunctioning O2 sensor will often start, however, the sensor may cause the car to backfire or stall while idling. A defective O2 sensor might cause the engine to receive so little fuel that it won't start.

John Framigllia
Technical Writer
Our technical writer is known for simplifying automotive parts and services. Intuitive with various vehicles and manufacturers, he knows how to simplify complicated problems.