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To start the reciprocating motion of the engine, the crank must rotate and compress the air/fuel mixture, which is then ignited by the spark plugs, allowing the engine to run on its own. The starter transforms electrical energy from the battery to the mechanical energy required to turn the engine. The starter is stimulated by an externally mounted solenoid, which is directly attached to the battery with a strong wire gauge. Inside the starter case, the rotating armature is surrounded by case-mounted field coils or permanent magnets. The brushes and the commutator are situated at the front of the armature shaft, and the starter drive is at the rear.
When the current is applied to the field coils and the armature, an electromagnetic force is generated which rotates the armature and consequently the starter motor. The flywheel of the engine is rotated by the starter motor with the help of gear reduction. The solenoid is triggered by the starter control circuit, which starts at the ignition switch and comprises a starter relay and the safety switch, which stops the engine from starting with the vehicle in gear. Automatic transmission vehicles are fitted with a neutral safety switch and manual transmission cars don't start until the clutch is pressed as a safety feature. When the ignition key is turned, the solenoid not only energizes the starter motor but also engages the starter drive gear with the flywheel or flex ring gear. When the engine starts, the overrunning clutch disengages the drive from the ring gear.