Often named fenders are wings or mudguards. Such sections cover the wheel well but the openings of the fender for the wheel wells have to be much wider than the tire's diameter because they do not travel with the tyre suspension and therefore have to be large enough to allow the full range of tyre movement on the suspension without well touching the wheel's inside. For maximum protection, the fender is attached onto the chassis frame and consists of a brace that is connected to the frame and hinges the door swings on. After their early introduction with the VW Beetle these have also become a styling tool as both a cover and a special styling feature.
What is the purpose?
A main purpose of the fender is to prevent rocks, dust, rubble and debris from entering the engine compartment through the wheel as well as the wheel crosses the road. The road impurities can stick to the wheel and are shot up and out by the wheel and thrown onto the pedestrian and other traffic ahead, which can be a nuisance particularly with hundreds of cars passing by; thus, fender covers are a simple but elegant way to ensure this doesn't happen while also offering a distinctive look to the vehicle. The fender only has some important parts that are necessary for their proper fit, which also control the door movement, so buying the right fender parts for your car is always advisable.
Where does it fit?
The fender is the metal component that stretches from the headlight to the front wheels. This covers the wheel on each side and is generally used as a guideline to instal all other parts of the body, such as the hood and headlights.